More information about Amoud University College of Health sciences can be obtained from Amoud University Official Website for College of Health Sciences website at www.amoudmed.org

Message from the Principal
Malcolm Gladwell, the author of Outliers and other thought-provoking books, has an interesting theory about success. In his view, “it isn’t the brightest that succeed, but rather those who have been given opportunities and who had the strength and presence of mind to seize them.”

Welcome to the Amoud College of Health Sciences which aims to produce competent Health professionals who are able to deal with the prevailing health problems of our country. It is the first training Health institution opened after the collapse of the Somali Government. Training facilities were one of the main casualties. It was destroyed, damaged or simply abandoned as result insecurity and unfortunately training ceased to function at all levels. A large number of youth turned to criminal activities and many others emigrated to Western Europe and North America under the pretext of seeking higher education.
The present and future impact of Amoud University as a whole in the Somali context is self-evident and cannot be underestimated. Within the first months of its existence the news of the birth of Amoud University had an amazing reawakening effect on a public devastated by a series of conflicts and mis-governance and helped energize the whole system of education. It has restored a great measure of hope and pride among the people providing much-needed self confidence after years of helplessness and desperation. The establishment of Amoud College of Health Sciences has tremendous psychological impact on the thinking of the people when it’s an extraordinary vision turned into a reality after witnessing the first batch of newly graduated Medical Doctors on mid 2007.
Our curriculum is solid and forward-looking( Community-oriented Education), replicating the environment our product will face in practice, and our physical plant is growing rapidly, with a substantial number of buildings projects either under way or on the drawing board. Our greatest assets are our communities, our dedicated and hard-working teaching and administrative staff; many of whom are internationally known, our students who come from widely varying backgrounds and have impeccable academic credentials.
Emphasis is put on collaborations between the different schools, self-direct learning of the students and the expectation that students take more than the usual responsibility for their education and contribute to the communities while they are in their education through the designed community activities of Amoud Health Sciences.
To fulfil this target and equip its graduates with the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for the practice of their different fields Amoud Health Sciences  uses different training sites with all the health staff contributing to the training. We use the existing hospitals (Borama General Hospital, Allaaleh Hospital and Al-Hayatt hospital) three health centers, five MCHs and two community sites in which the students are given an opportunity of coming in contact with the communities they will work for after finishing their studies.
Building the human resources for the health system of a country should not only include healthcare professionals like physicians and nurses but must take into considerations also all health professionals such as pharmacists, lab technicians, dentists and public health to address the basic health needs of its communities. Doctors, nurses, Dentists, Pharmacists, Lab Technicians, Radiologists and Technicians and Public Health officers  are educated separately, but in the real world have to work  together and in teams. Amoud College has started new initiative of training them together using the minimum resources we have and training sites.
The new graduates are expected to serve anywhere in the country and will be distributed to areas with the greatest need. Special attention is exercised to the quality of medical education and allied health professionals training throughout, starting from admission to graduation and assessed thoroughly by external bodies from the King’s College Teaching Hospital of London in which we have a partnership.
Amoud College of Health Science is the most rapidly growing institute at Amoud University and strives for academic excellence. It has started with 15 students and three lecturers and has now 753 students and 73 lecturers. It has produced 56 Doctors, 99 Nurses (first Nurses with BScN Degree in Somaliland and Somalia), 12 dental surgeons, 6 diploma dental technicians, 6 nurse anaesthetistics and 20 community midwifes. Its product has reached every region of Somaliland and Somalia and has contributed to the provision of health services of the country. This outstanding success for the last 10 years was based upon the creativity, boldness of vision, commitment and clarity of thought of its management, teaching and administration staff.

Principal
Amoud College of Health Sciences

More information about Amoud University College of Health sciences can be obtained from Amoud University Official Website for College of Health Sciences website at www.amoudmed.org

Message from the Principal
Malcolm Gladwell, the author of Outliers and other thought-provoking books, has an interesting theory about success. In his view, “it isn’t the brightest that succeed, but rather those who have been given opportunities and who had the strength and presence of mind to seize them.”

Welcome to the Amoud College of Health Sciences which aims to produce competent Health professionals who are able to deal with the prevailing health problems of our country. It is the first training Health institution opened after the collapse of the Somali Government. Training facilities were one of the main casualties. It was destroyed, damaged or simply abandoned as result insecurity and unfortunately training ceased to function at all levels. A large number of youth turned to criminal activities and many others emigrated to Western Europe and North America under the pretext of seeking higher education.
The present and future impact of Amoud University as a whole in the Somali context is self-evident and cannot be underestimated. Within the first months of its existence the news of the birth of Amoud University had an amazing reawakening effect on a public devastated by a series of conflicts and mis-governance and helped energize the whole system of education. It has restored a great measure of hope and pride among the people providing much-needed self confidence after years of helplessness and desperation. The establishment of Amoud College of Health Sciences has tremendous psychological impact on the thinking of the people when it’s an extraordinary vision turned into a reality after witnessing the first batch of newly graduated Medical Doctors on mid 2007.
Our curriculum is solid and forward-looking( Community-oriented Education), replicating the environment our product will face in practice, and our physical plant is growing rapidly, with a substantial number of buildings projects either under way or on the drawing board. Our greatest assets are our communities, our dedicated and hard-working teaching and administrative staff; many of whom are internationally known, our students who come from widely varying backgrounds and have impeccable academic credentials.
Emphasis is put on collaborations between the different schools, self-direct learning of the students and the expectation that students take more than the usual responsibility for their education and contribute to the communities while they are in their education through the designed community activities of Amoud Health Sciences.
To fulfil this target and equip its graduates with the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for the practice of their different fields Amoud Health Sciences  uses different training sites with all the health staff contributing to the training. We use the existing hospitals (Borama General Hospital, Allaaleh Hospital and Al-Hayatt hospital) three health centers, five MCHs and two community sites in which the students are given an opportunity of coming in contact with the communities they will work for after finishing their studies.
Building the human resources for the health system of a country should not only include healthcare professionals like physicians and nurses but must take into considerations also all health professionals such as pharmacists, lab technicians, dentists and public health to address the basic health needs of its communities. Doctors, nurses, Dentists, Pharmacists, Lab Technicians, Radiologists and Technicians and Public Health officers  are educated separately, but in the real world have to work  together and in teams. Amoud College has started new initiative of training them together using the minimum resources we have and training sites.
The new graduates are expected to serve anywhere in the country and will be distributed to areas with the greatest need. Special attention is exercised to the quality of medical education and allied health professionals training throughout, starting from admission to graduation and assessed thoroughly by external bodies from the King’s College Teaching Hospital of London in which we have a partnership.
Amoud College of Health Science is the most rapidly growing institute at Amoud University and strives for academic excellence. It has started with 15 students and three lecturers and has now 753 students and 73 lecturers. It has produced 56 Doctors, 99 Nurses (first Nurses with BScN Degree in Somaliland and Somalia), 12 dental surgeons, 6 diploma dental technicians, 6 nurse anaesthetistics and 20 community midwifes. Its product has reached every region of Somaliland and Somalia and has contributed to the provision of health services of the country. This outstanding success for the last 10 years was based upon the creativity, boldness of vision, commitment and clarity of thought of its management, teaching and administration staff.

Principal
Amoud College of Health Sciences

Policy and Objectives of College of Health Sciences

Policy of College of Health sciences

The policy of College of Health Science is to establish in stages (depending on available resources) starting with the faculties that will have an immediate positive impact on national development. It is composed now of six faculties with degree programmes and three diploma programs (Dental technicians, midwifery and radiology).
Following this policy of making priorities we started with the school of medicine in the academic year 2000-2001 followed by the school of nursing in the academic year 2006-2007.  In the academic year of 2009-2010 School of Dentistry was established and in the academic year of 2010-2011, School of Pharmacy & School of Lab technology has been established. In the academic year 2011-2012 the community midwifery program began and in this academic year of 2012-2013 School of public health and diploma of Radiology were also established .Six Schools are now operational with a total number of 753 students.

Objectives
 Established medical education and allied health sciences that:
•    Generates qualified and appropriately trained Health Professionals
•    Ensures a level of education based on international standards to optimize patient care and advance the health status of the people
•    Produces adequate number of qualified Health professionals
•    Provides continuing medical education on various disciplines.
•    Designs, conducts and coordinates high quality researches, studies and surveys
•    Facilitates implementation of researches in public health with other partners
•    Contributes to national health system development efforts and collectively plans with MOH and development partners on human resource development initiatives

Goal, Vision, Mission and Philosophy of College of Health Sciences

Goal
The goal of Amoud Health Sciences is to produce competent health professionals who can deal with the prevailing health problems of the country, competent to practice preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative medicine in respect to the commonly encountered health problems and Possess the attitude for continued self learning and to seek further expertise or to pursue research in any chosen area of medicine, Nursing, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Lab Technology.

Vision
The vision of Amoud Health Sciences is to be an excellent school of Medicine, Nursing, Dentistry, Lab Technology, Pharmacy and public health with a holistic approach to health care, research and training.
Mission
The mission of Amoud Health Sciences is to contribute to knowledge and to produce graduates with practical and intellectual skills appropriate to the needs of present and future Somaliland/Somali communities. The institute strives to ensure that the students acquire such skills using modalities that encourage active learning in the context in which they will later function as health professionals.

Philosophy
The philosophy of Amoud Health Sciences entails training a health professional in the context of the community, in which he/she will later practice. It encourages the student to acquire the important skills of self-directed learning, problem–solving and effective communication. Moreover, the institute emphasizes not only curative, hospital-based medicine but also through its community oriented approach prevention of diseases and promotion of good health.

Courses Offered at Amoud College of Health Sciences

The Courses offered at Amoud College of Health Sciences are:
a.    Diploma Courses

  1. Diploma in community midwifery
  2. Diploma of  Dental technicians
  3. Diploma of Radiology

b.    Undergraduate Courses

Undergraduate courses are offered at Amoud College of Health Sciences (ACHS):

  1. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS)
  2. Bachelor of Science in Nursing(BSN)
  3. Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS)
  4. Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm)
  5. Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT)
  6. Bachelor of Public Health  
  7. Bachelor of midwifery
  8. Bachelor of nursing Anaesthesia          

c. Postgraduate courses

Postgraduate courses are offered at Amoud College of Health Sciences:

  1. Master of public Health
  2. Master of family Medicine
  3. Master in Nursing education
  4. Master in  Nurse Reproductive health

Curriculum and Educational Strategies

Curriculum
The curriculum of Amoud Health Sciences is community-oriented education with a learning experience for the students and services to the communities with the objectives of giving the students the appropriate skills, attitudes and knowledge in identifying and dealing with the community health problems. The educational strategy is a student centered approach with emphasis on self learning to develop in the students the ability and willingness to pursue their own learning after graduation. The instructional strategies are lectures, seminars, group dynamics, presentations, and demonstrations and supervised clinical experience in community and hospital settings.

Speaking of milestones of the history of our curriculum it was the first curriculum to be developed after the collapse of the Somali central government. We first started as traditional curriculum but as we went ahead and coming into contact with the modern literature of the new trend of medical education and allied health professionals training and visiting other training health institutions practicing the new trends of Health professionals educational programmes we continually reviewed our curriculum and finally adopted the integrated curriculum because the traditional way of teaching introduced world–wide at the beginning of the 20th century does no longer meet current demands of education process and the health needs of our communities. The problem is caused mainly by a growing gap between constantly increasing amounts of knowledge together with development of new methods. The educational process in traditional curriculum is divided according to individual theoretical or clinical disciplines. Thus each discipline has its own textbook, Institute, chief lecturer as well as examiner. Horizontal interdisciplinary connections among such well-defined fields are minimal and students are not expected to obtain the required education which is responsive to the health needs of designated communities.
Hence the overall orientation of the educational programme is to be community based. The teaching and learning strategies were chosen to encourage the acquisition of an integrated and holistic body of knowledge and skills through self-directed active learning methods. Amoud Health Sciences therefore, also lays emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and skills in research, so that the graduates are able to carry out research in the health and health–related issues to predict and plan the health polices and the preventive measures.
Amoud College of health sciences main campus is at the north of Borama town near Rays Hotel and about six hundred metres south of Allaaleh Hospital. It is the first Health Training Institute after the collapse of the Somali central government who has produced the first medical Graduates in mid 2007.

The Core Activities of Amoud College of Health Sciences
1.    Develop good learning environment
2.    Service for the community
3.    Research activities 


1.    Learning environment
Amoud college of Health Sciences has been working on since its establishment to develop a well functioning learning environment with facilities that help students acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes to practice their profession well with first concern for the patient care. It consists of Clinical skill labs (General clinical skill lab, Maternity skill lab and Dental skill lab), lecture halls, library, and educational development center and management offices at the campus; four hospitals ( Borama Regional hospital, Al-Hayatt hospital, Allaaleh hospital and National Borama Fistula Hospital ) with a capacity of 450 beds, well- functioning diagnostic centers including clinical laboratories and imaging centers such as X-rays and Ultrasound machines; Six MCHs and two training community sites.

Facilities
1.    Library
 It is the largest health sciences library of all Somali speaking regions of the horn. It houses more than sixty thousand textbooks and a large number of medical journals with wireless internet connectivity throughout the library.

2.    Clinical Skill lab
The first clinical skill lab established in the whole country. The Clinical Skills Laboratory is now becoming integral parts of the educational programmes of all health training institutions and is designed for teaching and assessing learners at all levels of the training. It helps students develop the collaborative skills required for a profession like medical and nursing and has contributed a lot to the teaching of the clinical procedures before students come into contact with the real patients.

3.    Dental skill lab
A  Dental skill lab was established soon after the start of the Amoud dental School to serve as a Training Centre for the students where their dental practical skills are developed and polished before they come into contact with the real patient and provide a platform to the students to practice and develop their dental hand skills. It has facilities
Objectives:

  1. Clarifies students concepts by making them go through the fabrication procedures practically thus efficiently turns students’ hypothesis into originality.
  2. Instills working spirit among students and improves their co-ordination with others as well as the community being served.
  3. Equip with the skills necessary for their practice in dental services.
  4. Atmosphere at the lab provides combination of nurturing support and challenges to the students to reach their maximum potential.

4.    Maternal skill lab


5.    Educational development Center
To generate competent and appropriately trained health professionals, ensure a level of education based on international standards, optimize patient care and advance the health status of the people educational development center whose mission is to provide more relevant and accountable life-long health professional educational programmes that can lead the health promotion in the country. The center works in training the teaching staff of the training institutions on curriculum designing, assessment and evaluation of the educational programmes with the:

Objectives

  1. To pioneer for up-grading of the medical education and allied health professionals education.
  2. Provide training in Medical Education and health professionals educational programmes including curriculum designing, effective teaching methods, student assessment, programme evaluation, quality assessment and standards in health professions education.
  3. Encourage cooperation between the medicals schools and allied training health sciences of the country.
  4. Promote Community-oriented medical education and Community-based medical education as well as problem-based learning approaches and self-learning to develop in students the ability and willingness to pursue their own learning after graduation.
  5. Train health personnel in the field of management and leadership through workshops.
  6. Organize and implement continuing professional education activities

ACHS has also reached its target of realizing the three stages of Medical Education and health professionals training but in definite need to consolidate and are:

  1. Basic medical education and health professionals training which we started on Academic year 2000-2001.
  2. Postgraduate studies started on Academic year 2012-2013 with public health, family medicine residence and nursing education
  3. Continuing professional development which was going since the start of Amoud College of Health Sciences.

Services for the communities

Other than the teaching Amoud College of Health Sciences provides services to communities where it is located through:
a.    Community activities
 It is designed in a way to secure healthy condition for the people resident in the selected sites and the students come into contact and become familiar with the communities they will work for after the completion of their education. Two sites were chosen (one urban and one of agropastorlist) so that the students understand the pattern of the diseases in different geographical locations. It was started with Daraymacane village (agropastorlist) because of its accessibility and manageable population to attain better health and better quality of life for all those who are living in Daraymacane. If this was succeeded then to replicate to other parts of Borama district, to the region and finally to whole country. The second site of Sheikh Osman section of Borama town was started in the academic year 2011-2012. The community of these were involved to assume responsibilities in defining their needs, identifying priorities, mobilizing their local resources and organizing themselves through a series of simple activities aimed at meeting the essential needs of the individual, families and the community. These activities will be implemented in:
1.    Involving all social groups in the community sites
2.    Educating the community and building awareness
3.    Bringing about constructive development by consensus
4.    Promoting self-help and self-reliance
5.    Promoting bottom-up community based approach to integrate socioeconomic development and promotion of health lifestyles through increased family income, self-care and provision of basic needs.

All these activities are focused on producing a direct impact to improve the life and the health status of the community sites. The development the community is categorized through:
a.    Activities that can be accomplished by the community with little or no support from outside
b.    Activities that can be carried out jointly by College of Health Science and the  community without further intervention from outside
c.    Activities that need outside involvement.

In order to carry successful activities, the community and students work together. Each party carries out certain tasks in promoting the life of the community. For the community a committee (Village community development) is formed composed of representatives from the different quarters of the community sites. This committee acted as a liaison between the community and College of Health Science. The community development committee is trained in methodology of learning by doing, skills in leadership, self-management and self –financing.
Each student is assigned to 2 families, which he or she will follow during his studies. The student has to look the importance of confidentiality. Within the families, each student follows up children and mothers noting their growth and development and assesses the health status of other members of the family. The student keeps records the members of the family (income, pulse, BP, heart sounds, weight and height). The student also observes and notes the environment and social characteristic of the family, relationships among members of the family and the effects of the extended family on health and disease.


The students also carry out the following activities:
a.    Students identify the health Abnormalities of the community sites and then study as a problem.
b.    Students are introduced to the methods of assessing health problems in the community (including data collecting, analysis and interpretation) and deciding on priorities and intervention on the basis of specific orientation community diagnosis. The students  work also in  identifying  other problems within the community in collaboration with committees from the community, decide on priorities and look solutions for the problems they identify with the community committees.
c.    The students study the role of the community’s socioeconomic and other factors in order to prevent development of diseases.
d.    Student study the relationship between environment and host.
e.    Teamwork is enhanced so that students could learn much from other members of the team.
The community committee and the students identify together the education and socioeconomic problems facing the community, prioritize the problems, classify according to who will be assigned to solve them, time frame and targets in managing the problems. Those targets must be clear, simple and realistic to motivate the community. College of Health Science students guide the community committee development and the community in the feasibility of solving different problems taking into consideration community needs, extent of the problem among families and impact of people’s quality of life.
Baseline surveys were carried out before the start of the community activities to get database for actions, plans and evaluation of the activities. It highlighted the actual problems and needs of the community and indicated ways to solve it. Baseline survey included:
a.    Household surveys which was conducted house to house basis in order to obtain information about the families (family members, their age, sex, major income resources of the family, number of children, vaccination of the children, prevalence of chronic diseases and disabilities within the family).
b.    Baseline community survey on the availability of facilities, safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, environment, nutrition, literacy and skills etc.
c.    Surveys on vital indicators of health status such as crude death rate, infant mortality rate, maternity mortality rate etc
The community were also assessed for their response towards the development activities, their level of community participation, acceptance and ownership of the activities and sustainability of the development projects.
While emphasizing the preventive and promotive aspects of health care of the community the essential curative services was carried out also. The overall focus was on communicable diseases, common nutritional disorders and environmental health and hygiene, with a special attention to the conditions constituting the major elements of the burden of disease: reproductive health care, treatment and control of basic infectious diseases (upper respiratory tract infection and tuberculosis), control of epidemic diseases (especially malaria), immunization. Information, health education and communication about health and nutrition are strengthened.

Activities students implement in community sites are aimed at:
a.    Promotion of the health of the community (through health education which focused on the sanitation, water, lifestyle “Kat eating and smoking” and nutrition..
b.    Treating those who are sick.(diseases process intervention)
c.    Carrying out preventive measures such as vaccination of children who are less than 5 yrs of age
d.    And schooling for the children.

Community activities achievement:
a.    communities put their trust in the project and are actively participating
b.    Early presentation to the health services
c.    The sanitation of the Village improved dramatically with the disposal of solid wastes in front of their homes decreased and villagers began to burn or bury them.
d.    Complete vaccination coverage of all children under five years of age and regularly giving to the new born babies (no outbreak of measles for the last years even though it happened in the surroundings of Daraymacane and Borama city.
e.    Preventive medicine is being recognized as an important aspect of health status
f.    Students have already contacted the communities they will work with after the completion of their education. Following the patients from their early manifestation of the diseases to the tertiary stage (students treat the patients at site. Those who need further investigations and treatments were taken to the teaching hospitals of College of Health Science. Students assigned to the family   follow up  the patient in the hospital).
g.    Inter-sectorial development including the schooling and upgrading of agricultural production through interventions from the faculty of agriculture which did not exist before College of Health Science engagement with community has been materialized. The Amoud university medical students    were instrumental in recruiting students, hiring teacher, equipping the school and rehabilitating it.
Other services for the community are:

b.    Mental Health Activities
Amoud University College of health sciences had been involved in a number of community-based programs intended to provide basic health care to the communities and develop a good learning environment for its students. Mental health illnesses are prevalent in Borama with no mental health services. To find a solution and follow the guidelines of WHO mental Health policy for the underdeveloped countries College of Health Science started a mental Health services and integrated into the community based programs College of Health Science was already involved. It is the first community-based mental health service in Somaliland. The aim was to establish a comprehensive and sustainable community based mental health care in which a large number of patients requiring mental health care could have the opportunity to be treated. It has two components namely the community mental health services and the psychosocial intervention for chronically mentally ill.

The aim was:
•    To improve access to quality mental health services at community level at the health care facilities in Borama district.
•    To advance de-stigmatization of mental disorders through intensified advocacy campaign and health promotion activities.
•    To develop learning environment for the students.
Because of this project, a large number of patients suffering mental illness for a long time were cured and re-integrated back to their normal life. The entire burden of the mentally ill is left to the family. This is costly in terms of money and manpower to the family in particular and to the whole society in general.
 Stigma of mental disorders through advocacy campaign was also reduced. Families have started to bring their patients at an early stage instead of going to the traditional healers. The integration of mental health services into primary program is very helpful and tangible. This resulted that community mental health service is the best way to reach out the outnumbered mentally ill clients in Somaliland and needs to be replicated to the other parts of the country. It tends to be cheaper for patients to get mental health care and follow up in a country where mental health facilities either is in bad shape or not existing in most of the towns.  The community program reached patients that would have never come to clinical care like chained people, people who could not afford any service. This  offers good source of education for medical and nursing students in the country.
 
Figure 1: Community based mentally ill patients May-November 2011 in Borama
c.    Healthy pregnancy and children development
There is a compelling evidence that early months of life sets the foundation for competence and coping skills that effect learning, health and behavior throughout life and this theory has been widely accepted in the world(WHO 2009). High mortality and prenatal mortality rates continue, with a maternal ratio over 1,100 per 100,000 live births, high rates of obstructed labour, fistula, hemorrhage, eclampsia, unsafe or neglected abortion. Many women lack access to maternity care for reasons of poverty, distance, poor roads and transportation and lack of educational resources and skilled personnel. Children’s death rates still 225per 1000(WHO, 2005) and continue to die as well as high infant and mortality rate.

In Somaliland the problems associated with childhood development and care is enormous including lack of awareness of positive parenting, lack of skilled health workers in the field, limited early year’s education, poverty and lack of resources and support for families during pregnancy, birthing, postpartum and early years growth and development. Community mobilization including health promotion is needed to raise community awareness. Improved health education and health promotion at prenatal, birthing, and postpartum enhances save birthing. Thus, their positive parenting skills and the knowledge gained will impact on the health and development of their children.

Amoud university schools of medicine and nursing have integrated their efforts to create an atmosphere in which both faculties jointly reach their goals for community health activities. At an early stage student learn from each other and support and respect each other’s profession. They share facilities at school and in the clinical areas. Since 2008, College of Health Science made an effort to facilitate for students to perform MCH activities, improve referrals and provide health promotion. This has impacted admission in the birthing units and early interventions of major complications like eclampsia, preeclampsia, PPH, and reasons for C/sections at Borama General Hospital (one of teaching hospitals) with objectives of:

  • Increased utilization of MCH resources by expectant mothers and parents of infants.
  • Increased capacity of Parents to understand early child development and to cope with the challenges of parenting in early years.
  • Increased capacity of service providers(MCH Nurses, clinical instructors, and nursing and medical Students) to offer information , teach parenting skills, prenatal care, and make referrals for targeted  groups.

College of Health Science schools of medicine and nursing started to expose students to community health activities at an early stage of their training. The objective of this experience is to enhance students learning teaching in community health as well as to support the community by raising their awareness about pregnancy, birthing, nutrition breast feeding, and referrals. A small scale project called healthy pregnancy and children development funded by EC has been successfully implemented by Amoud university school of nursing and medicine (from March 2011 to Feb/2012). Information and supports, beginning in the prenatal stage and continuing through the first few months of life, are essential elements to successfully supporting mothers in their transition to motherhood. It is the objective of this project to raise the awareness of expectant and new parents in regards to a positive parenting. It is important that if expectant and new parents understand the importance of being able to recognize when help is needed, and of knowing what resources are available to them in the community; their health would have improved.

d.    MCH and health promotion

Students with supervision regularly visited 4 MCHs once/week. They provided focused antenatal care for a total of 1426 pregnant women; they provided health promotion sessions for 10 pregnant women/week/MCH for 4 weeks. A total of 480 pregnant women completed the health information sessions on pregnancy, birthing, nutrition, and child development. These 480 women also completed at least 4 prenatal care visits. These women contracted to go to hospital early for birthing if any of warning signs occur. An incentive was given to all women attended at the workshop and snacks during the sessions. Nurse/midwives at the MCHs during the project reported a total number of 1426 pregnant women who came for antenatal care. This number has tripled compared to the cases reported in 2010.

e.    School health
Medical and nursing faculty staff held a workshop on the importance of school health and its impact on student’s families and their teachers for over 50 school teachers and their supervisors. This workshop motivated the group and they agreed to have a good relationship with the schools of nursing and medicine. During the project implementation, students with supervision provided reproductive sexual health to a total number of 600 students at three high schools. There are compelling evidences to increase the involvement with school health activities to make a difference in the health of the students and the awareness of school teachers and parents in relation to school health.

f.    Home visits
 At home visits, students completed family assessments and health teaching for about 140 families at Sh. Osman catchment area. During the home visits they also screened and referred 20-39 cases/week with different medical problems. Students have become motivated to support these poor families. On their own they fundraised from each student to support the transportation and medication for the poor of the poor families at Sh   Osman catchment area.
 The impact of the care and health promotion activities and referrals improved admissions for birthing at the Borama General hospital later in the year of the project. Sustaining these activities will eventually bring positive results for pregnant women in Awdal region.

Achievements
•    Improvement in the clinical skills of students, MCH nurse/midwives as well as the clinical teachers.
•    the number of pregnant women attending the MCHs has increased
•    Women needing urgent care identified and referred appropriately.
•    admissions at the general hospital increased which is a learning experience for the students’ and
•    Finally heavy impact on the health of expectant mothers and their families and the community at large.

g.    Dental Carriers prevention & elimination
Oral diseases like dental caries (tooth decay), periodontitis and oral diseases are global health problems in both industrialized and developing countries, especially among poorer communities. People worldwide suffer from dental caries.   Dental Caries in childhood is a particularly virulent form of dental caries that is characterized by an overwhelming infectious challenge and is associated with unusual dietary practices. Early Childhood Caries is a specific term used to describe a unique pattern of dental decay in infants, toddlers and preschool children. At an age of 10 to 20 months, anterior teeth develop white area of demineralization. No pain is present at that time and is only diagnosed by a dentist.
The twin disparities of poor oral health and lack of dental care are most evident among low-income preschool children, who are twice as likely to have cavities higher than income children In 16 to 24 months of age, all the upper front teeth develop yellow brown discoloration and cavitations may also be present. Prevention based on good oral hygiene habits, use of fluorides and prudent diet has dramatically reduced the level of these diseases in industrialized countries. Students of  Amoud College of Health Sciences has been involved with community activities for the last years and with screening of children has noticed very high dental caries incidences particularly Sheik Osman area due to the lack of awareness and absences dental services. Because of this Amoud Dental school has decided to work in eliminating the tooth decay from Sheikh Osman quarter of Borama town among children between 3-15 years old through dental health promotion and prevention strategies.

Objectives:
1.    To provide dental caries prevention and eventually to eliminate through dental education/promotion, and treat the existing disease for children of 3-15 years old and very venerable adults as domiciliary care free of charge.
2.     To eliminate the dental caries for the children of 3-15 years and reduce sharply if possible the caries incidence of adults within three years.
3.    To teach students how to collect data and process it, the students has to learn also how to conduct survey and dental screen during the project.
4.    To teach students the importance of voluntary work.
5.    The students will learn a traumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique which is currently used worldwide for ruler communities; this technique does not require water taps and electricity for restoring the teeth.
6.    To introduce the students early to the community that they will serve when they complete their studies.
7.    Students also will learn history taking, assessments and how to manage dental caries both as individual cases and community based programme.

Achievements
1.    It  gave a new hope  children living in these areas
2.    Many of them treated.
3.    Dental health promotion to the parents and children
4.    Partial denture for many patients
5.    Community awareness and mobilization.

Internship Programme

The Internship programme is a training programme done for medical graduates of Amoud college of Health Sciences and is structured as a series of five clinical rotations carried out over two years in public hospitals in Somaliland. The intern will rotate among the main five disciplines of medicine (Internal Medicine, General Surgery, Gyn/Obs, Paediatrics and Community Medicine). The Intern is expected to acquire certain competencies at the completion of the internship. It is conducted at Borama General Hospital and at Hargeisa Group Hospital.

Aims of the Internship Programme
The aim of the Somaliland Medical Internship Programme is:
1.    To equip the medical graduates with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and experience to serve as [registered] doctors in Somaliland.  
2.    To lay foundations for the continuous medical education which will be open to all qualified medical practitioners of Somaliland in order to improve their clinical performance and their provision of health services to the people of Somaliland.
3.    To improve the health services provision of Public Hospitals.
4.    To extend the health services to the periphery areas.
The new graduates (interns) are trained for one year to attain the designated knowledge, skills and attitudes and sent to the districts for one year with expectation of one Doctor in each district hospital for the coming ten years.

College of Health sciences partners and Collaborators

Since its establishment Amoud College of health sciences has been striving to bridge the gap in teaching packages. The institution has chosen a policy of partnership with health institution with good reputation to support the essential teaching packages. . The objective of the partnership is to promote sustainable health and development in Somaliland/Somalia since College of Health Science is one of the few institutions that gave Somali citizens a hope of regaining health professionals in their home country. Amoud always believes a kind of mutual cooperation that bring about a tangible result and long term impact overall Somaliland health status. Partners and collaborators are:
1.    Tropical Health Education Trust (THET) website: http://www.thet.org/our-work-in-somaliland based in London sponsors Kings College Teaching Hospital London supports our internship program, provide educational material and has developed our clinical skill lab
2.     Kings College Teaching Hospital London Website: https://www.kcl.ac.uk/
a.    sends lecturers to fill the gaps we have in the delivery of our curriculum
b.    Helps us in the curriculum review and development
c.    Act as external examiners for the final comprehensive exam
3.    Kijaabe Hospital of Nairobi; website: http://kijabehospital.org/
a.    Sends lecturers who help us in the bed-side teaching
b.    Participate our internship programs by upgrading the skills of the interns
c.    Provide health services to our communities
4.    SOMDEV an international NGO based at Great Britain :
a.    Provide us lecturers who stay with us for a period of two years.
b.    Support the postgraduate study of Family Medicine which was started the academic year of 2012-2013.
5.    WHO website: http://www.who.int/en/
a.    Provides teaching material
b.    Training and refreshment courses for the teaching staff.
We are looking for other partners who can helps us in the postgraduate studies and can provide us postgraduate posts for our new graduates who will be the future lecturers of the Amoud College of Health Sciences.
Organizations that College of Health Science is a member:
•    World Directory of Medical Schools
•    Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO).
•    Sub-Saharan African medical Schools organization (SSAMSO).
•    AMEER( Association of Medical Education of Eastern Mediterrean Region)

School of Medicine

Amoud Medical School was established in 2000-2001. Its academic program is designed for six years medical education leading to the degree of bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBBS). The school is partnering with King’s College Teaching Hospital of London who provides teaching assistance and Kijaabe hospital of Nairobi who provide their support in the form of dispatching lecturers on periodic-basis to AMS. The school also recruits Somali doctors to help the School in community-based medical education. Special attention is exercised to the quality of medical education through out, starting from admission to graduation. The School’s concept and philosophy necessitates the adherence to valid concepts of education using modern trends and effective methods with flexibility. The curriculum is community –oriented medical education (Learning experience for the students and services for the community with the objectives of giving the students the appropriate skills, attitudes and knowledge in identifying and dealing with the community problems) and uses student-centered approach with emphasis on self-learning to develop in the students the ability and willingness to pursue their own learning after graduation. During the educational program the students come into contact with different communities with different situations to recognize the characteristics of the Somali family, relations, culture, attitude towards health, knowledge and practice in state of health and disease and become familiar with the people they will work for after the completion of their medical studies.

School of Nursing
Amoud Nursing School was established in the academic year 2006-2007. Its academic program is designed for four years and is to meet the educational requirements of the nursing students who are enrolled in the Baccalaureate nursing program at Amoud University. It is the first nursing in Somaliland/Somalia who offers a degree programme in Nursing. The purpose of the Baccalaureate Nursing Program at Amoud University is to provide quality nursing education which prepares graduate students for professional nursing practice as generalists. It Prepares graduates who will be able to contribute to the development of nursing education, nursing administration, nursing research and address the challenges facing the healthcare system of Somaliland /Somalia.
The courses in the curriculum will emphasize communication skills, critical thinking, professionalism and the development of lifelong learning. Curricula will be built around an integration of knowledge and practice and will focus on a holistic view of individuals, groups, families and communities. The program will help them acquire a range of professional nursing skills that will enable them to work with clients in a variety of areas such as health promotion, prevention, acute and chronic care. Graduates of the Baccalaureate Nursing Program will be able to: Function effectively as nurses in a hospital and in a community setting. Exhibit personal and professional development responsive to change nursing, healthcare and society, develop professional and leadership skills to design, coordinate and improve the healthcare system of Somalia.

School Dentistry
Amoud Dental School & Oral Health was established at the academic year 2008-2009 with the aim to produce dental surgeons optimally prepared to take part in the rapidly changing health care environment of our country. Health care systems depend not only upon infrastructure and resources, but also on the availability of skilled human resources. The changing pattern of oral diseases, their frequency and severity, and the disparity of distribution between developing and developed countries require changes in the strategies of dental education and oral health care delivery systems. Amoud College of Health Sciences was established to effectively address one of the Somaliland/Somali most neglected and pressing health problems which is dental and oral health care.
The current situation features huge unmet treatment needs, striking inequality in delivery systems and absence of an adequate community-oriented prevention system. People in developing countries are burdened by a significant number of oral diseases, which are further aggravated by poverty, poor living conditions, lack of dental awareness, and the absence of appropriate policies and funding to provide basic oral health care. In the wake of changing culture and lifestyle, new dental diseases are emerging. While future patterns of disease and the efficacy of future treatments are difficult to predict, the demand for dentistry is likely to increase. Amoud Dental was started to produce competent dental surgeons who are able to deal with the dental and oral health problems.
The curriculum is reflecting modern trends of dental education and is designed to equip the graduates with the, knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities to adapt rapidly to changing professional circumstance. It is student-centered approach with emphasis on self-learning to develop in the students the ability and willingness to pursue their own learning after graduation.


SCHOOL OF PHARMACY
 It was established at the academic year 2010-2011 with the aim of producing qualified pharmacist who contributes to the post war recovery of Somaliland pharmaceutical system. Its academic program is designed for   four years of study   leading to the degree of Bachelor of pharmacy.

The pharmaceutical sector has been the least developed area in Somaliland and Somalia. Prior to the civil war, the government was unable to procure drugs. Drug supplies were largely dependent on foreign aid. Today, drugs are brought to the country mainly through two channels: through the international aid organizations or through the private sector. Pharmaceuticals have become a big business and pharmacy shops have mushroomed in every corner of all towns and cities. Although private pharmacies supply remote areas with much-needed drugs, the quality of the drugs sold in those pharmacies has been questioned. In addition, most of the drugs used are suspected to be generic, thus putting the already vulnerable patients to great risk. In order to find a solution for this problem the school of pharmacy was established.
The curriculum is community oriented pharmacy education with a learning experience for the student and services to the communities and is designed in such a way that its courses are as much as possible integrated and community oriented. Educational strategy of the curriculum gives more emphasis on strategies that encourage active learning to provide students with up-to date skills, knowledge and attitude and to prepare its graduates to be competent in a challenging, constantly changing and multicultural working environment.


School of Medical Laboratory Technology
It was established at the academic year of 2010-2011 with the aim to produce medical technologist with knowledge, skills and attitudes who are able to fill the gap in the health working force of the laboratories. Its academic program is designed for   four years of study   leading Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT). It’s curriculum is community oriented education and combines theoretical knowledge of the basic natural and medical sciences with the skillful use of sophisticated equipment and techniques to provide vital information that may be required for diagnosis and treatment of diseases, quality control, quality assurance and  research to formulate the policies and measures for the prevention of diseases. The educational program is designed to produce professionals who can use the knowledge they have acquired to develop their countries and improve the quality of lives of their people.
There are Inadequacies in laboratory infrastructure and a low national priority and neglected, not only because of more pressing health problems and emergencies but also because of lack of manpower, skills and equipment which finally leads to underutilization of laboratory services available. Health care programs dictated by donor agencies often do not consider broader regional needs or make provisions for overall sustainability. The migration of skilled laboratory personnel due to the civil unrest deteriorates the situation. The majority of hospitals cannot consistently provide even these basic services in a quality-controlled fashion. unreliable and inaccurate laboratory diagnostic testing leads to unnecessary expenditures in a country already plagued by resource shortages, promotes the perception that laboratory testing is unhelpful, and compromises patient care. Amoud School of lab technology was established to initiate new source of producing skilled laboratory personnel to ensure accurate laboratory services that contribute well to the patient care and secure physicians' confidence in applying laboratory results to their daily practice.
The curriculum is community oriented education with emphasis on self-learning to develop in the students the ability and willingness to pursue their own learning after graduation to become competent lab technicians and community oriented. The School is also concerned to advance knowledge about health through research in all areas related to health care including basic science, clinical science education and studies related to methods for the delivery of health care

School of Public Health
It was established at academic year 2012-2013 as part of the Amoud College of Health Sciences and the first of its kind in Somaliland and Somalia. The program is designed for four years of study. enhanced scarcity has characterized the content and quality of health care in the public sector
Somaliland never had been adequate public health capacity
The educational program provides many opportunities of education, research, and community involvement in the advancement of the knowledge in public health disciplines to improve the quality of life and the population’s health and to produce practically oriented public health professionals who possess the knowledge, skills and professional attitudes required to assume leadership roles within the public health issues and to meet the current and future challenges of public health issues.

Criteria for Admission

Applicant to Amoud College of Health Sciences must have:
•    Completed secondary education
•     Passed the general requirement  of courses of the freshman year with at least a GPA of 3:00

Academic calendar of Amoud College of Health sciences

     Beginning    Ending
1st Semester    15th Sept    30th Jan
Mid-term    1st Feb    28th Feb
2nd Semester    1st March    15th July
Summer Vocation    16th July    14 Sept

Research Activities

Amoud University has developed a research policy which is intended for both internal and external users within and outside the University. The policy puts emphasis on provision of research opportunities, quality and ethics in research and innovation, efficiency and effectiveness in coordination and management of research  at Amoud University. Amoud University commits itself to establishing, maintaining, and protecting an enabling research environment that promotes innovation, production, domestication and stimulating exchange of ideas within the University community and with the outside world. The involvement of humans as research subjects shall be governed by procedures consistent with established international standards espousing the principles of respect, beneficence and justice. Research activities will address the salient problems constraining development initiatives in Somaliland and to advance knowledge about health through research in all areas related to health care including basic science, clinical science education, studies related to the cultural and behavioural aspects of medicine, methods for the delivery of health care and medical education.